Sunna: The Flying Calf

Oday Baddar


There is no god but God. The omnipresent and everliving. His being has no boundaries, no description, no timeline, and no end1. He was before all existence, and He shall be after eternity. He is absolute and boundless. He is one and unchanging. He does not bear nor was he born, and He has no equal. The creator of heaven and earth, everything in them shall perish except Him.

The clergyman then jumps and anxiously adds: "And I testify that Muhammad is God's messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, his family, and all his companions," as though a load had been put off his chest, the heavy load of not praising the prophet along with God in the same breath.

Calm down, O' learned cleric. We are not disputing the fact that Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashem bin Abdu-Manaf bin Qusay bin Quraysh is God's messenger and prophet, or that God has bestowed peace and blessings upon him, and that He asked us to bestow peace and blessings upon him as well, in deed not in words. But no matter how great Muhammad was among people, God is infinitley greater than Muhammad. If it were possible to measure the difference in greatness between God and Muhammad, we would have limited God's greatness and that is blasphemous. Thus, as the difference between God's greatness and Muhammad's greatness is infinite, we can deduce that the difference between Muhammad's greatness and any other person's greatness, in comparison with God, is practically zero.

Indeed. Muhammad himself had gotten tired of deification attempts by many Muslims. Having been preceded by Jesus Christ who had actually been deified due to mad love, Muhammad preempted this problem by confirming hundreds and thousands of times that he is only human like the rest of us, eats food, drinks water, sleeps with women, has children, boys and girls, and grandchildren too, and speaks in his own people's dialect in which the Quranic verses had been revealed to him. He was born a natural birth, got sick, died, and was buried like all people. The one and only difference between Muhammad and all other people in his lifetime and anyone else's lifetime was this: the Quran's verses were revealed to him; the words of God.

Fussilat (Chapter 41): Say: 'I am but a human being like you, only it has been revealed to me that your God is but one God. So straighten up for Him and ask for his forgiveness, and woe to those who associate others with God in worship' (6)

al-Kahf (Chapter 18): Say: 'I am but a human being like you, only it has been revealed to me that your God is but one God. So whoever hopes to meet his Lord, let him do a good deed and not associate anyone else in worship of his Lord (110)

Yunis (Chapter 10): Is it that strange to people that We have given revelations to a man from amongst them...? (2)

Moreover, Muhammad was infallible only in divine matters (i.e. in matters related strictly to the message). He was not infallible in every aspect of life, no matter how big or small. For we know that a human being cannot truly learn except through their mistakes. And Muhammad is a human being, and he was not chosen as messenger and prophet until he had passed 40 years of age; forty years of traveling and working and learning about life and other existing religions. He did not convert to Judaism nor to Christianity for aspects he saw in them that did not satisfy his mind. Neither did he give any attention to his own tribe's Paganism where he saw ignorance and insanity. Instead, he chose the religion of seclusion and solitude, in a dark cave inside a nearby mountain where he can hear not a single voice or be interrupted by Pagan rituals. He prayed to the one God he deduced must be true, until the first revelation was inspired into him. We can understand that the honorable Messenger was not ready to receive prophecy and the Message until after he had reached a mental and spiritual level where he had become capable of bearing the responsibility of delivering such a grand Message to his nation.

Of Muhammad's mistakes in the different matters of life what has been confirmed to us by the Holy Quran, where we can see God reproaching Muhammad on several occasions:

Al-Tahrim (Chapter 66): O prophet, why do you forbid what God has permitted for you, seeking the contentment of your wives? God is forgiving and merciful (1)

Al-Duha (Chapter 93): Did He not find you an orphan then provided you with refuge (6) Did He not find you lost and then guided you? (7) Did He not find you poor and then provided you with wealth (8) Similarly, do not oppress the orphan (9) And do not repel the beggar (10)

Abasa (Chapter 80): He frowned and turned away (1) when the blind man came to him (2) How would you know? He might benefit from you (3) Or perhaps remember something from you that would help him one day (4) As for the one who does not ask you (5) you preach to him (6) What is it to you if he benefits or not? (7) But when he who came to you seeking answers (8) and revered you (9) you busied yourself away from him (10)

We see here how God was disciplining the prophet in how he should treat the orphan and the beggar, reminding him that he was an orphan and in need of help in the past. Then we see God scolding him because he frowned at a blind man who came asking and seeking knowledge, and turned his face away from him. A short-sighted disbeliever might look at this and say to herself: "At last, proof that Muhammad makes mistakes, therefore he cannot be a true messenger of God." And a short-sighted Muslim might feel uneasy at the fact that Muhammad had made errors unbecoming of a man chosen specifically for his unsurpassed sense of morality. But these stories, included in the infallible Holy Quran, are put in the Quran as an undisputed confirmation that Muhammad is, afterall, human! It also proves to us that Muhammad did not author the Quran, for why would he scold himself and ruin his image to the people he is preaching to?

What every Muslim should understand from these Quranic verses above is simply this: there is nothing wrong with Muhammad being a human being just like us, and making mistakes do not belittle him or decrease his reverence in our eyes, for erring is human. But to be righteous is to have the humility to see where one's errors reside and ask God for help and forgiveness, and to repent, for God is the most forgiving and most merciful. To believe otherwise; to believe that Muhammad was infallible, is to deify Muhammad and turn him into a manifestation of God.

The Quran is Muhammad's Only Revelation

Today's collective of Islamic jurists, however, continue to insist that every word, deed, and nod from God's messenger (i.e. the Sunna) is a revelation from God, thus transforming the Sunna into another Quran, equating the prophet's words with God's words (and that is true deification without calling it so), inferring this idea from God's words in the Quran:

Al-Najm (Chapter 53): By the star that falls (1) your companion has not erred nor strayed (2) for he does not speak on his own accord (3) it is but an inspiration revealed (4)

Of course, that claim is impossible. For why would God reproach Muhammad in the opening of al-Tahrim (Chapter 66) if everything Muhammad utters or does is inspired by God, making it appear as though God was reproaching Himself through his prophet? The fact of the matter is that the verses from al-Najm just mentioned above were revealed at the early stages of Muhammad's prophecy, when the elders of Quraysh were accusing Muhammad of being the author of the Quran. At that time, there was no such thing as Sunna, yet. And the elders of Quraysh had not accused Muhammad of lying about anything except his claims about the Quran being the word of God. Aside from that, they had nicknamed him "the honest and trustworthy one."

Moreover, the Sunna itself confirms to us how naive it is to claim that the Sunna is revelation. In the Prophet's biography, written by Ibn Hisham (who had copied from Ibn Isaac, the first biographer of the prophet), it was mentioned that al-Habbab bin Munthir al-Jamahee had asked the prophet shortly before the battle of Badr had started:

"The location we are in right now, has it been chosen for us through God's revelation, and hence we should not move an inch away from it, or is it the choice of opinion, war tactics, and plot?" Muhammad replied: "It is the choice of opinion, war tactics, and plot." Then al-Habbab said: "O Messenger of God, then this is not a good location at all. Ask the people to get up and move where we are closer to water than the enemy [will be when they arrive]. We settle there and then dig behind it from the center, then build a basin and fill it up with water. That way when the battle begins, we drink and the enemy does not." God's messenger replied: "You are right...2," and the prophet did as al-Habbab had suggested.

If every thing Muhammad does is by revelation from God, then God would not have said in Al-Imran (Chapter 3) speaking to His prophet:

... Consult them in the matter, and when you have made up your mind, rely on God, for God loves those who rely on Him (159)

So when one of Muhammad's companions suggests a different opinion, as what al-Habbab had done, and Muhammad accepts his companion's council, we do not say that what Muhammad did, based on that consultation, is a revelation from God, nor do we say that God revealed to Muhammad through his companions!

The Quran has also unequivocally informed us that what is revealed to Muhammad is nothing but the Quran. And that is the truth:

Taha (Chapter 20): ... And [O Muhammad] do not hasten with the Quran before its revelation is completed to you, and say "Lord, increase my knowledge." (114)

Notice that the word "its" refers to the Quran, and suggesting otherwise is dishonest.

Al-Shura (Chapter 43): And so We have revealed to you an Arabic Quran to warn the mother of towns and who dwells in its vicinity about the Day of Assembly, no doubt in its coming, that there shall be a group in paradise and another in hell (7)

Fatir (Chapter 35): And what We have revealed to you of the Book is the truth in confirmation to what's in his hands. God knows and watches his servants [people] (31)

Al-Anaam (Chapter 6): Say: 'which is the greater testimony?' Say: 'God is the witness between you and me, and He has revealed to me this Quran to warn you with it...(19)

Yusuf (Chapter 12): We narrate to you the best of stories as part of the Quran We have revealed to you. Before its revelation you have been unaware (3)

Yunis (Chapter 10): And when Our clear verses are recited to them, those who do not wish to meet Us say: 'come up with a different Quran or edit it." Say [to them]: It is not up to me to edit it on my own. All I do is follow what has been revealed to me. Were I to disobey my Lord, I would fear the torment of a grand Day (15)

In this last verse we see Muhammad differentiating between himself and what is revealed to him, which confirms to us that the Sunna is not a revelation from God. Had it been otherwise, Muhammad would not have said in the verse above: "It is not up to me to edit it on my own," meaning that he refuses to replace it with what is not a revelation. And the verse, like the ones above it, clearly identifies the revelation to be the Quran only, for when Muhammad says "I only follow what has been revealed to me," he was simply answering the disbelievers who had said: "Come up with a different Quran."

Obey the Messenger, not the Prophet

We are done with the idea that the Sunna is revelations. What is not revelation from God cannot be a part of His message. The messenger Muhammad is called a "messenger" because his mission was to deliver a message to us from He who sent him. And who sent him was God. Therefore, the message is from God, not from Muhammad, and what is God's message but the Quran?

Al-Hashr (Chapter 59): ... and whatever the messenger has given you - take. And what he has forbidden you - refrain... (7)

If God almighty had said: "whatever Muhammad has given you" or "whatever the prophet has given you," the meaning would have changed, because Muhammad, in his role as a messenger, has given us the message. And the message is from God - the Quran. But in other aspects of life, such as whether the prophet cut his hair short or let it grow long, whether he wore a cloak or a jacket, or whether he chose a location at the battle of Badr which al-Habbab bin Munthir found to be unwise, we, as Muslims, are not obligated to take or refrain from. You cannot find a single verse in the entire Quran that commands Muslims to obey Muhammad or obey the Prophet. They all state that Muslims are to obey the Messenger. And obeying the messenger means to obey all matters that are directly related with the message. Meaning, obeying the messenger is obeying the message.

Al Imran (Chapter 3): Say: 'Obey God and the Messenger.' Should they turn away, then know that God does not like the rejectors (32)... Obey God and the Messenger, perhaps mercy would be bestowed upon you (132)

Al-Nisaa (Chapter 4): O' believers, obey God and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. If you have a dispute about an issue, then turn back to God and the Messenger, if you truly believed in God and the Last Day. That is the best way and the best result (59)

Al-Maida (Chapter 5): Obey God and obey the Messenger and be careful. If you renege, then know that Our Messenger's only duty is to deliver the clear message (92)

Al-Anfal (Chapter 8): They ask you about the bounties of war. Tell them: 'the bounties of war are for God and the Messenger. So avoid God's dissatisfaction and amend what is between yourselves and obey God and His Messenger if you were believers (1)... O believers, obey God and Hi Messenger and do not turn away from him while you listen to him (20)... Obey God and His Messenger and do not fight among yourselves and hence fail and your greatness will have been lost. And be patient, for God is with the patient ones (46)

Muhammad (Chapter 57): O' believers, obey God and the Messenger and do not discredit your deeds (33)

Al-Mujadalah (Chapter: 58): ... Obey God and His Messenger, and God is aware of what you do (13)

Al-Noor (Chapter 24): Say: 'obey God and obey the Messenger.' If they turn away, 'then know that he only bears what he has done and you bear what you have done. If you obey him you shall find guidance. The Messenger's only duty is to deliver the clear messageُ' (54)... uphold prayer and pay the regulated charity and obey the Messenger in the hope that you find mercy (56)

Al-Taghabun (Chapter 64): Obey God and Obey the Messenger. And if you turn away, know that Our Messenger's only duty is to deliver the clear message (12)

The messenger's mission, as the last two verses have clearly stated, is to deliver the message. And it is in here that we are obligated to obey the messenger, not to his person or to matters unrelated to God's revelations, such as the way he dresses, sits, lies down, eats, or drinks. Muhammad "the prophet" is a human being like us, and can make mistakes. God reproaches the prophet, but never reproaches the messenger, as we have seen in al-Tahrim (Chapter 66): O' prophet why do you forbid what God has permitted... (1)

When the prophet passed away, a huge number of Arabs who had converted to Islam in the latter years of his life had reneged, because they had confounded the entirity of Islam with the personhood of Muhammad, when the truth had always been known that Muhammad was simply a messenger who delivered his Lord's message. After all, Islam is to submit and worship and pray to and fear and revere God, not Muhammad. Remember the words that Abu Bakr had said to the people upon Muhammad's death: "Whoever worshiped Muhammad, know that Muhammad is now dead. Whoever worships God, know that God is alive and never dies."

The Messenger and Caliphs Forbidding the Recording of Hadeeth

Muhammad's message then is the Quran, not the Sunna. And what's ironic is that there isn't any record in the true Sunna which calls upon Muslims to record the Sunna, but on the contrary, plenty of records calling onto Muslims not to write it down, as shown in the following true Hadeeths:

"Do not write anything down from me except the Quran. Whoever has written anything else must erase it. You can talk about me without holding back, but whoever reports lies about me shall have a seat reserved for him in Hell." (Sahih Muslim, Vol. 18, P229).

"What are these books that I have received word about you writing them? I am only human. So whoever has anything bring it here." Abu Hurayrah said: "so we collected all the writings and burned them." (Khatib al-Baghdadi, Taqyeed al-Ilm, P34)

The collective of Islamic jurists claim, without evidence, that the prophet had commanded people back then to write only the Quran because he feared that they would mix his own words with the words of the Quran. But his Hadeeths have not been recorded during the reign of neither Abu Bakr, nor Omar bin al-Khattab, nor Othman bin Affan, nor Ali bin abi-Talib, nor during the reign of all 24 caliphs of the Umayyad Dynasty, nor during the reign of the first 10 caliphs of the Abbasid Dynasty (approximately 230 years in total). Not even one of these 38 caliphs (successors of Muhammad) gave any orders to write down the Hadeeth. On the contrary, we have plenty of recorded evidence showing that they have given orders to erase and get rid of any written records of Muhammad's sayings (Hadeeths); not because they feared mixing the words of the Quran with the Hadeeth, as the jurists claim, but because they feared that lies and untrue rumors would spread about a man they have sworn to fight for and defend forever.

"Narrated by Abi-Maleekah: Abu Bakr [the first successor of prophet Muhammad] declared to his people after the death of their prophet, saying: You keep relaying stories about God's messenger; Hadeeths, the contents of which you cannot agree upon. And the disparity in disagreement among the next generations will only grow wider. Thus, stop narrating any Hadeeths from God's messenger. If anyone asks you, tell them: In our hands is nothing but the Quran, so do what it has permitted and refrain from what it has forbidden." (al-Thahabi, Tathkirat al-Hifath. Vol. 1, P2-3).

"Narrated by Aisha [Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter]: My father recorded all the Hadeeths of God's messenger which he could recall, and they were 500 Hadeeths, and that night he kept turning and unable to sleep. I felt bad for him, so I asked him: 'Are you turning in sleep because of some problem or some bad news?' When he got up he said: 'My child, get all the written Hadeeths that you have.' So I brought them to him, and he set them all on fire. I said: 'why did you burn them?' He said: 'I feared that they would still be in my possession after my death, and that they would contain Hadeeths from a man who has trusted and entrusted me, and those Hadeeths turn out to be inaccurate, and I would be to blame for relaying them.'" (al-Thahabi, Tathkirat al-Hifath. Vol. 1, P5).

"Narrated by Yahya bin Jaadah, that: Omar bin al-Khattab wanted to write down the Sunna. Then he decided not to write it. And he sent a message throughout the Muslim lands: whoever has any Hadeeths, erase them." (Jami' Bayan al-Ilm. Vol. 1, P64-65)

"Ibn Saad narrated Abdullah bin al-Alaa saying: 'I asked al-Qasim to recite Hadeeths for me to dictate, but he said: 'The number of Hadeeths has increased during the reign of Omar bin al-Khattab, so much so that he declared to all people to bring to him whatever written records they had, and when they did, he commanded that they be burned, and he said: '[these Hadeeths are] a doubling [of the Quran] like the doubling of the People of the Book.' And so al-Qasim forbade me that day from writing any Hadeeths." (al-Tabaqat. Vol. 5, P188).

As for the well-known Hadeeth "I have left for you two things, if you hold onto them you shall never go astray: God's Book and my Sunna," turns out it's not a true Hadeeth. It has not been recorded in any of the Six Books - not in Sahih Bukhari, not in Sahih Muslim, not in Jami' al-Tirmithi, not in Sunan al-Nisa'i or Sunan Abu Dawud or Sunan Ibn Maja al-Qazwini. It was only mentioned in Malik's Muwatta, without sanad (supporting evidence). Besides, how would the prophet command the people to hold onto his Sunna when he had commanded them not to write it down (as aforementioned)? We also know from the prophet's biography that he had spent a great deal of time with the revelation writers and memorizers, before he had passed away, and confirmed the accuracy of the Scriptures and even arranged the order of the verses and chapters. Why did he not do the same with regards to the Sunna, which he supposedly had left for us to hold onto so we never go astray? The truth is we did go astray precisely because we held onto his invalid Sunna which he had forbidden us from recording. Nay, we recorded it against his wishes, and against the wishes of the righteous caliphs.

The Birth of Hadeethology

Muslims have begun recording the Hadeeths in a scientific way 180 years after Muhammad's death, peace and blessings be upon him. This so-called Hadeeth Science (or Hadeethology) was only a link in a chain of sciences that were born in the eastern nations of the Islamic empire, where the majority of Muslims were Persian and Turkic, those who had a great difficulty in learning and speaking Arabic. And since need is the mother of invention, we can now understand why the first schools of Arabic language were established in Iraq, where the majority of its population at that time were Persians and immigrants from Middle Asia. Moreover, it was al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf al-Thaqafi (660-714 AD), the governor of Iraq during the Umayyad Dynasty, who first introduced Arabic punctuation (points and accents, the idea copied from Syriac-Aramaic) to help non-Arab Muslims learn reading (especially the Quran) in a proper way. In addition, the first Arabic dictionary was written and published in Iraq as well: Mujam al-Ayn by al-Farahidi (even the word mujam "Arabic for dictionary" comes from the word ajam which means Farsi or non-Arab, evidence of who was the target audience of dictionaries)3. Later on the most famous Arabic grammar books were authored by Persians, such as Sibuyeh, for Persians were the ones who were in greater need for such books. And since the schools were already there, and students were going to school to study the Quran and learn Arabic, it was only a matter of time before the need for more comprehensive and encyclopedic works to be made available to hundreds of thousands of students, consequently leading to the appearance of the first religious scholars and interpreters in Iraq.

And so, Abu Hanifa - the first of the four great Sunni imams - was originally from Afghanistan and resided in Iraq. And the first tafsir (interpretation) book for the Quran was Jami al-Bayan by imam al-Tabari (838-923 AD) who was originally from Tabarstan, northern Iran. His book remained the one and only book in its newly created genre for 200 years before the next one was written, and it is still used until this day and highly commended by most Islamic scholars.

It was in that era and in that atmosphere that the scholars had begun writing down the Hadeeths in order to make them accessible to the public. As for the authors of the six books of Hadeeth - considered to have the ultimate authority on accuracy of recording them - they were all non-Arabs4: Bukhari is from Khurasan, originally from Balakh in Afghanistan. Imam Muslim was born and raised in Naysabur, Iran. al-Tirmithi and al-Nisa'i were both from Khurasan (today's Uzbekistan). Ibn Majah al-Qazwini, as his name tells us, came from Qazwin (Caspian), Iran. And finally, Abu Dawud was from Sujustan, Iran.

Back then, there were over 700,000 Hadeeths recorded in the musnads (books containing accurate hadeeths supported by evidence) of Ahmad bin Hanbal al-Basri al-Baghdadi (780-855 AD) and others. This remained the case until imam al-Bukhari (810-870 AD) completed his Sahih (literally meaning: the correct one), a multi-volume book containing all the correct Hadeeths he could find, after 16 years of travel and research. Among the 700,000 Hadeeths in hand, al-Bukhari selected 7593 Hadeeths only (3000 of which are duplicates, i.e. redundants), which was published a few years before his death (i.e. 230 years after the prophet had passed away). The Sahih of al-Bukhari (or simply called: Sahih Bukhari) has been celebrated back then by all Islamic scholars, even by Ahmad bin Hanbal, as the most accurate source of Hadeeth; a celebration that has not stopped until this very day. Perhaps the greatest gift that Bukhari has bestowed upon us is that he saved us from the effects of the remaining 692,407 Hadeeths (99%) which were commonly narrated and considered truthful back then.

Then Bukhari's student came along, imam Muslim (821-875 AD), and wrote the multi-volume book that became known as Sahih Muslim, containing 7275 Hadeeths (3030 without duplicates). But what's strange is that although both Sahihs, that of Bukhari and of Muslim, contain over 50% of identical Hadeeths, there are Hadeeths in Muslim which cannot be found in Bukhari, and Hadeeths in Bukhari which have not been re-cited in Sahih Muslim. What does that really mean? Does it mean that the second most accurate book of Hadeeth, according to the council of jurists and all Islamic scholars, does not find all the Hadeeths in the preceding Sahih Bukhari to be accurate? Should we deduce, perhaps, that Sahih Muslim is the edited version of his mentor's Sahih; meant to replace it? If that was not the case, then how do we explain Sahih Muslim excluding Hadeeths that were cited by Bukhari (the most accurate source) as accurate? Did imam Muslim not read Sahih Bukhari? Did he not believe in every Hadeeth cited in Sahih Bukhari? And if the second most trusted source in Hadeeth, imam Muslim, did not acknowledge all of his teacher's findings or did not read them, then why have all Muslims today been sentenced to abide by every word in them? Why has the Muslim, in the eyes of these Islamic jurists and scholars, become an incomplete or untrue Muslim unless he testified and submitted to the truth in the two Sahihs, and believed that the words written in them are truly Muhammad's words, just as the Quran is truly God's words?

This logic brings us to another question: What was the condition of Muslims before the birth of Bukhari? Has the Islamic nation, from China to Spain, from the reign of the prophet till the reign of al-Mutawakkil (the 10th Abbasid caliph) been living in darkness and blasphemy, until God blessed us with the birth of our awaited savior, imam Bukhari, to guide us to the true Sunna of the prophet, that which Islam cannot be fulfilled without?

As for those who claim that without the prophet's Sunna we would not have known how to pray, I ask them: How did Muslims know how to pray correctly for two hundred years when no Sunna had been recorded anywhere? And to those who claim that the Quran cannot be understood without the aid of the Sunna, I ask them: How did the Muslims understand the Quranic verses when the true Hadeeths have been unavailable to them for 230 years? Did they not comprehend the Quran or Islam until Bukhari and al-Tabari had come along?

Overlooking the Accusations

They answer the questions aforementioned by saying: "Bukhari was highly admired and his book received by all the scholars and imams of his generation and their successors because of his scientific method in research. He had traveled through Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Hijaz, listening to over 1000 leading narrators, and it was said that he did not record a single Hadeeth in his Sahih until after he had prayed5, and it was said that he had never accepted a Hadeeth from a narrator whose honesty and integrity were in question; in the least of doubt, even if he had lied to a donkey." We have to pause here in total awe, for the leading narrator in all six books of Sunna, the gold medalist of narration, Abu Hurayrah (599-676 AD), who had converted to Islam only two years before the prophet had passed away (after Muslims' decisive victory over idolatry), who has single-handedly narrated near 5400 Hadeeths, was actually accused by the prophet's companions of being a liar, as has been reported in, of all books, Sahih Muslim!

"Ibn Razeen said: Abu Hurayrah had come out to us and slapped his forehead with his hand and said: you accuse me of telling lies about God's messenger so that you find guidance and I go astray." (Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2, P75).

Moreover, the contempt that the four righteous caliphs had for Abu Hurayrah has been well-documented in the most trusted Islamic history books, even showing him being accused by them of telling lies and exaggerations:

"The narrator Rashid Ridha said: 'if Omar bin al-Khattab had lived longer than Abu Hurayrah, we would not have received all these Hadeeths from the latter.'" (Fajr al-Islam, Ch.6, Sec.2, P262).

"Omar bin al-Khattab said to Abu Hurayrah: Stop narrating the Hadeeths of God's messenger or I shall banish you to the lands of Doos." (Tarikh Ibn Kathir, Vol. 8, P106; Ibn Asaker, 5/239. Hadeeth no. 4885. Kanz al-Ummal; al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah: 4/106, Siyar Aalam al-Nubalaa: 2/600).

"Omar bin al-Khattab said to Abu Hurayrah after he had beaten him with his staff: You have overdone it, Abu Hurayrah. You are definitely telling lies about God's messenger." (al-Iskafi, "Abu Hurayrah," Sharaf al-Deen: P195).

"Othman bin Affan sent a message to Abu Hurayrah: 'you have overdone it. Stop it, or I shall banish you to the mountains of Doos (al-Ramahramzi, al-Fasil al-Muhaddith, P554).

"Abu Hurayrah used to say: 'My life-companion conversed with me, My life-companion met with me, my life-companion the messenger of God told me.' When Ali bin Abi-Talib heard this, he said: 'since when has the prophet been your life-companion, Abu Hurayrah?'" (Mukhtalaf Taaweel al-Hadeeth, P41).

"Abu Salamah narrated that he said to Abu Hurayrah: Did you narrate this much Hadeeth during Omar's reign?' He replied: 'if I had narrated during Omar's reign as I do now he would have beat me up with his staff.'" (al-Thahabi, Tathkirat al-Hifath, Vol. 1, P7).

The problem is not just in Abu Hurayrah, who was considered as a trusted narrator by both Bukhari and Muslim, but in the fact that all noted Islamic history books6 are filled with stories of accusations and imprisonment of many famous narrators, such as Abu Masoud and Abu al-Dardaa, who were thrown in prison by Omar bin al-Khattab because they kept on narrating hundreds of Hadeeths, when Omar had warned them to stop7. Moreover, Ibn Abbas (619-687 AD), the silver medalist in narration, who narrated over 1700 Hadeeths, was only 12 years old when the prophet had passed away. Compare this with the number of Hadeeths narrated by Abu Bakr, the messenger of God's true life-companion before and after the beginning of Islam, and the first man to believe in Muhammad, which did not exceed 140 Hadeeths, 11 of which had been accepted by Bukhari, and only six accepted by imam Muslim.

But the collective of Islamic jurists continue to find one defense after another, and without any logic or proof! They say, for example, that Ibn Abbas and Abu Hurayrah were highly regarded among the prophet's companions and known for their righteousness, knowledge, and power of memory. But what about the righteousness and knowledge and power of memory of the chain of narrators who delivered the Hadeeths to Bukhari 200 years later? They also say that Omar bin al-Khattab's anger at Abu Hurayrah, Abu Masoud, and Abu al-Dardaa and other narrators of Hadeeth (which they do not deny) was based on his fear of having the Quran getting mixed up with the Sunna, not on the actual act of narration. With these Islamic jurists, it is like the idiom: it's a calf even if it flies!8

The point of this essay is not to attack Bukhari and the other authors of the Six Books in what they have copied. On the contrary, we would like to defend their genuis and great efforts, which seem to have been focused on nothing but recording; as though they did not actually read what they have written down. One clue to this theory is in the fact that the number of duplicate Hadeeths comprise nearly half of their books' contents. A second clue is in the fact that some of these recorded Hadeeths make no sense. Take the following two as an example:

"Any woman who wears perfume before going out, and passes people who can smell her scent, is an adulteress, and every eye is an adulteress." (al-Tirmithi & al-Nisaii).9

"If a man asks his wife to lay in his bed and she refuses, and he sleeps while still upset at her refusal, she will be damned by the angels until she wakes up." (Muslim & Bukhari) 10

When a Muslim reads this and refuses to cast any doubt on its authenticity, he is then forced to shut down his reasoning faculties, willingly, and thus become insane, following insane imams.

Perhaps the authors of the Six Books had a clear conscience and their research was honest, and perhaps their goal was only limited to apply the scientific methods of recording that they believed to be sufficient, leaving the comprehension of the contents of their books for others to sift through based on what makes sense and what doesn't. We don't know if we should believe the history books that accused the narrators of Hadeeth, or disbelieve them and believe in the Six Books of Hadeeth instead. And what evidence do we have to prove that the works of Bukhari and Muslim are impeccable? Did they conclude their huge volumes with a list of references they had used, so we can refer to them? Did they gain the approval of distinguished university professors who can attest to the accuracy in their research? Is there a Quranic verse that prophesied their infallibility?

Unfortunately, the only piece of sure evidence that we have is logic: that the second greatest Hadeethologist - imam Muslim - did not record in his Sahih everything that his teacher - imam Bukhari - had recorded. Moreover, famous scholars like al-Albani and al-Bayhaqi and others have already revised the two Sahihs and edited out several Hadeeths they had determined to be erroneous (it's not clear on what basis they have done so). Revisions are still being conducted, and true Hadeeths are being put under the microscope even in this generation, by the collective of scholars and jurists themselves, among others. How can we follow the Sunna, as an authentic source of Sharia, and equate it with the Quran, when we have in our hands hundreds of accusations and appeals concerning the truthfulness of Hadeeths?

The Quran is Sultan

The solution to this problem does not lie in revising the texts of imams, since we can't go back in time and check their oral sources. The solution is to return to the Holy Quran, which God promised to preserve till the end of time; the book that can be proven true in the heart (mind) which, by design, can see the truth (choose to believe or disbelieve, as the Quran said); the book that the messenger of God struggled for 23 years to deliver to us written and arranged before his death.

Instead of revising and diving into the problem of accuracy of Hadeeths and their so-called supporting evidence, Bukhari and Muslim should have stopped their work once they had heard that the prophet and his righteous caliphs had forbidden the recording of Hadeeth altogether. How I wish their research ended with the only logical and honest conclusion: that it was impossible to verify the accuracy of a Hadeeth that had been narrated orally among the common people passed down over 200 years. As for the claim that people had super memories back then, it is utterly negated by the fact that 693,000 Hadeeths had been rejected; the 99% of all Hadeeths that Bukhari and Muslim could not accept as true! That is the ultimate evidence that no matter how super-natural one's memory was back then, it could not penetrate two hundred years without alteration or misconfiguration, not to mention the contradictions that already exist in the 1% attested to by Bukhari and Muslim. You can realize this when you see Bukhari's or Muslim's notes within their recorded Hadeeths, notes like: "and in another narration," to indicate that there is more than one possible version of the same Hadeeth.

As for the Holy Quran, it has told us several times that it is the complete, the detailed, the one and only source of Divine Law. There is nothing missing from it nor wastefully added, for it has been authored by the everliving God who never sleeps nor slumbers, bestowed upon Muhammad in his own Arabic tongue.

Al-Nahl (Chapter 16): ... We have bestowed the Book upon you, to clarify everything, to be a guidance, a mercy, and good news to all submitters (Muslims) (89)

Al-Israa (Chapter 17): ... We have fully explained everything (12)

Yusuf (Chapter 12): ... These verses do not lie; they confirm what is in his hands and they explain everything; they are a guidance and a mercy to a people who believeَ (111)

Al-Anaam (Chapter 6): How can I seek a judge other than God when He had bestowed upon you this Book fully detailed? Those who have been given the Book before know that it is the truth from your Lord, so do not be among the doubters (114) The words of your Lord have been fulfilled, truthfully, justly, and none can alter His words. He is the all-hearing and all-knowing (115) If, then, you follow the majority of the people on earth they would lead you astray from God's path, for they only follow conjecture and all they do is make things up (116)

If someone claims that the Quran needs the Sunna in order to explain it and clarify it, he would be contradicting the verses aforementioned, which have stated that the Quran is fully detailed and fully clarified. And if someone said that we should resort to other sources of Sharia, aside from the Quran, he would be violating verse 114 of chapter 6 mentioned above (How can I seek a judge other than God?). And if someone said that it is impossible for the majority of people to be wrong (like when the collective of Islamic jurists decide to override the Quranic verses with Sunna), then he would be contradicting verse 116 of the same chapter. The idolaters had made the same exact argument when confronting Muhammad and his thirty plus followers in the early stages of his mission; they said it was simply impossible that they, and their forefathers, can all be wrong and lost, while the truth is found in the hands of Muhammad and a few low lives and ex-slaves. The Quran had already responded to such accusations by stating that it is the mind that is the basis of guidance and truth, not forefathers and ancestors:

Al-Baqara (Chapter 2): And if they are told to follow what God has said, they say: we shall follow what we found familiar to our fathers. Does it matter not that their fathers cannot reason or find guidance? (170)

And here we are today, telling them to follow what God has said (the Quran), and they respond by saying that they would follow what they found their fathers familiar with: historians and interpreters and Hadeeth narrators. They have associated mere men with God in worship without cognition, as Quraysh had done before; as have the majority of Christians done and continue to do.

Al-Tawbah (Chapter 9): They have taken their priests and scholars, along with Christ son of Mary, as lords next to God. They [Christians] have only been commanded to worship one God, no god but Him, Exalted he is above all what they associate with Him (31)

In that verse, the Quran is of course confirming the message in the Bible:

Matthew 23: (8) But you are not to be called "lord," for you have one Teacher, and you are all brothers. (9) And do not call anyone on earth "father," for you have one Father, and He is in heaven.

The Quran is not some coded message that awaits Muhammad or anyone else to decode its riddles for us. Rather, it was given to all people, in Arabic. As for the books of tafsir (interpretation), they were written as an aid for those who struggle with the Arabic language, as we explained earlier. These tafsir books are not from God. They are one interpretation, which may be true or false. No Muslim is obligated to accept them. And no one's belief is flawed because he or she chose to disregard them. Those who are fluent in Arabic do not need to read these tafsir books because the Quran is clear enough, and it asks all people to read it and contemplate its words and meanings. The Quran begins its verses with "Hear Me O' people" and "Hear Me O' believers." It does not begin with "Hear Me O' scholars" and "Hear Me O' jurists" and "Hear Me O' imams" and "Hear Me O' ayatollahs"! The first people who converted to Islam were common people, and did so by simply listening to the verses of the Quran being recited. We have never heard or read that the prophet's companions, upon hearing the Quran's words, exclaimed or said that they could not understand, or that they protested to the messenger of God that the books of tafsir from al-Tabari and al-Sayouti and others had not been written yet.

The science of Hadeeth, the science of Reasons of Revelations (asbaab al-nuzool), the science of The Overriding And The Overridden (al-nasikh wal-mansukh), and the books of tafsir were not given to use by the prophet, nor did he ask anyone to write them, nor did the righteous caliphs or any of the companions. All so-called sciences are invented 200 years after the prophet's death. Did God and His messenger forget to tell us about them? Did they forget to foretell us about the coming of Ibn Hanbal and Shafei and Abu Hanifa and al-Tabari and al-Sayouti and Malik, that they would come and correct and improve and override the message of Islam which the prophet had testified before God that he had delivered to us complete?!

Any Muslim who wishes to understand the Quran which has been directed to all people, can do so by simply reading it by herself. If her Arabic is weak, she may improve it with the help of the well-known dictionaries11. She may use her brain which has been given to her by God in order to deduce and interpret. For the Quran had warned us that no person can say in his own defense on the Day of Judgment that an imam told him this and that, or a scholar had said so and so, in order to avoid punishment:

Al-Baqarah (Chapter 2): Some people consider other men as equals to God, love them the way they love God - the true believers love God more than anyone else - if these transgressors could only see the punishment [in the next life], they would know that all power belongs to God, and that God's punishment is very severe (165). On that day you see the leaders disown their followers who then see the punishment and all relations are torn apart (166) The followers would say: "if we were given a second chance at life, we would disown them as they now disown us." God will show them their deeds as they regret them, for they will not be released from Hell (167)

As for the excuse heard so often for abandoning the reading and studying of the Quran, namely that it is better to leave that duty to scholars who know more, it cannot be found anywhere in the Quran. If that was true, the Quran would have then directed its speech to the council of jurists and scholars, and commanded the common people to abandon the Quran and simply follow the scholars. But that is not the case at all. Islam was not meant to have certain individuals designated as scholars and jurists. The truth is that the Quran was sent to all people, including the most ignorant as well as the most knowledgeable. We can see it filled with verses that argue with people, asking them: "Can't you reason? Would you not contemplate?" and referring to them as "the ones with minds." We do not know anyone without a mind, except the mentally insane. There is no harm in following the opinions of others, as long as the followers were convinced by reason. Remember that the beginning of the Quran is "read." And reading is not the same as reciting, but it is learning and understanding. Rewards are bestowed on those who read the Quran, not on those who merely recite it in prayers (tilawah). It is from the word "read (qara'a)" that we got the word Quran12.

As for our Muslim nations today, the majority of the people do not read and cannot stand reading, and religion for them has been reduced to (a) whatever they hear in Friday sermons which have been checked and notarized by the ministries of religious endowments, under the authority of a dictator who submits to a foreign empire, none of whom understands anything about religion anyway; and (b) a few prayers, rhyming quotes, and short chapters from the Quran that they repeat without thought, as if they were magic spells and talismans to exorcise demons and open the gates of paradise for themselves and their deceased loved ones. And if they were told that this is not the purpose of religion, they would say: 'we are not scholars or jurists to qualify for such a debate.' They confess, then, that they have discarded their reasoning faculties out of religion, willingly, consciously, and have surrendered them to the imams who proclaim knowledge and jurisprudence, who grow their beards, wear special clothes to differentiate them from the rest of us, and receive their religious statuses from kings, just as the Jews and Christians have done before them. Well what did Christ think of such men? The Gospel tells us in Matthew 23:

(5) Everything they do is done for people to see: They make their phylacteries wide and the tassels on their garments long. (6) They love the place of honor at banquets and the most important seats in the synagogues. (7) they love to be greeted with respect in the marketplaces and to be called "lord" by others. (8) But you are not to be called "lord," for you have one Teacher, and you are all brothers. (9) And do not call anyone on earth "father," for you have one Father, and He is in heaven.

To blindly follow Bukhari and Muslim and Tirmithi and Nisaii and Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah, on the basis that they have relayed to us the Hadeeths of the prophet and his companions with utmost accuracy, then equating obedience to those Hadeeths with obedience to God and His Messenger, as the muftis have determined, is nothing but invention and blasphemy in religion. We have reached a point where a Muslim, who does not read the Quran, is now shamelessly trumping the verses of God with the words of imams, and whenever his mind rejects their words, they tell him that it's the devil planting doubt in him. Then they remind him that it is impossible for Muhammad's nation to concur on falsehood, while the Quran that he does not read says: "if you follow most people on earth, they shall lead you away from God's path." But it's like talking to deaf people. As for those imams, they are twice as blind.

The Contradictions between Quran and Sunna

If, for example, you tell these imams that God has permitted marriage for the sake of pleasure13, they respond by saying that imam Muslim said in his Sahih that the prophet has forbidden it14, as if they have never read the first verse of al-Tahrim (O' prophet, why do you forbid what God has permitted...?). Obeying the messenger is mandatory only when it does not contradict the message he delivered to us (the Quran). For the messenger has no right to forbid or permit what God has not revealed to him through the Quran. Meaning, the teachings of the prophet cannot contradict what has been mentioned in the Holy Quran. This is precisely why the prophet forbade recording the Hadeeth: the Hadeeth is not Divine Law.

If you tell them that the Quran did not command us to stone the adulterers and adulteresses, and that execution in general is not allowed except in the case of murder, they respond by saying that in Sahih Bukhari the prophet commanded us to stone adulterers and adulteresses to death15. Moreover, they permitted the killing of religious renegades, basing such permission not on Hadeeth, but on the sayings of the prophet's companions (which have also become part of Sunna, as though the Sunna is subject to inheritance), for the prophet has never commanded anyone to be killed for reneging. In fact, he permitted reneging, as he did in al-Hudaybiyah talks that culminated to a binding treaty, the terms of which allow reneging from both sides. And the messenger of God would not have permitted reneging had it not been permitted by God, as we can see in tens of verses where the Quran says:

Al-Baqara (Chapter 2): There is no compulsion in religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong... (256)

Yunus (Chapter 10): If God willed it, everyone on earth would believe. Who are you to go against God's will and force everyone to become believers? (99)

And when they are told that the Quran says that sexual activities16 countermands ablution, they return to the books of the ancient to find that imam Ahmad bin Hanbal had interpreted the word that refers to those sexual activity (mulamasah) to mean any physical contact (lams) such as a handshake. Based on that, the imams now claim that a handshake between opposite sexes, or even having the tips of their fingers accidentally touch, countermands ablution and would thus countermand prayer. Imam Ahmad went beyond touching, and claimed that a man's prayer would be countermanded if a woman even walks near him, citing the following Hadeeth:

A man's prayer is countermanded if any of the following are in his presence: a woman, a donkey, or a black dog.17

This Hadeeth was then accepted by Bukhari and Muslim in their Sahihs. How can a sane human being read a Hadeeth like this (which has not been revoked in the same way that the collective of jurists had revoked the Hadeeth about the slave's dress code, which shall be discussed later) and still continue to believe in the authenticity of the six books? Those who have surrendered their reasoning faculties out of fear of the devil's manipulation respond: How can we not believe in this Hadeeth when it has been mentioned in Bukhari and Muslim and all the approved Hadeeth books?

The rational question should be: How can a prophet followed by nearly one fifth of the Earth's population utter such silliness? I mean, what about the white dog and the red dog and the blue dog? And what about all the other animals? Do they not countermand prayer as the donkey and the black dog do? And how can the presence of a woman countermand prayer, when in the Hajj season in Mecca, at al-Kaabah, men and women pray right next to each other as they did in Muhammad's time, and they even unintentionally rub against each other due to the massive number of pilgrims today?

This is how the collective of jurists reaches verdicts, they tell the reader of the Quran: "How can you explain the meaning of "sexual activities (mulamasah)" if you had not read the Hadeeth about the woman, the donkey, and the black dog countermanding prayer? It is only after you have read the true Hadeeth, revealed to Muhammad by God, that it becomes clear to you what that word means, namely, that the very presence of a woman countermands ablution and prayer." And that is how the interpretation of the Quran becomes hostage to nonsensical Hadeeths attributed to the prophet.

You see them acknowledging the truthfulness of the well-known Hadeeth about the Muslim woman's dress code as narrated in Sunan Abu Dawud (one of the six books, but not in the two Sahihs), where the prophet commands women of mature age to cover their entire bodies except for their faces and hands18, and at the same time they reject another Hadeeth, also from Sunan Abu Dawud, which states that the dress code of a Muslim slave woman is to cover her body only from her knees to her navel19 (slave women truly did walk the streets that way, praying with their heads and breasts exposed; and they were even forbidden from covering their breasts and hair because that would be assimilation to free women, which was forbidden during the reign of the caliphates).

So if we tell these Islamic jurists that there isn't a dress code in Islam that commands women to cover their hair in hijab, they'll say: "yes there is, in the Sunna, and the Sunna is equal to the Quran, for they are both revelations from God!" Then if we tell them that Islam has commanded slave Muslim women to expose their hair and breasts in public, they'll say: "that is a false Hadeeth with weak supporting evidence, and the scholars and jurists have got together and reached a verdict to amend this particular Hadeeth, namely, to discard it completely;" even though both Hadeeths come from the same source, and they both have weak supporting evidence, as the scholars themselves admit. Then with all the audacity they can muster, they attribute the hijab dress code as had appeared in Sunan Abu Dawud to God's Sharia (divine Law); thus transforming Abu Dawud's book into another Quran.


Truly, impertinence has no limits. They gave themselves the authority to permit and forbid through collective verdicts (Ijmaa) and so-called scientific measurements (Qiyas) and other Sharia sources that they had invented. They are just like the scholars and rabbis and priests and popes and bishops and patriarchs and clergymen mentioned in the Quran, the only Book they seem to have stopped fathoming, like in al-Nahl (chapter 16):

Do not say, what your tongues describe as lies, this is permitted and this is forbidden; you put words in God's mouth. Those who lie about God's words shall not succeed (116).

Nay, they read the Quran and then altered the original meaning intended without altering the words, and decided among themselves to give themselves the authority to permit what God has forbidden, and to forbid what He has permitted; thus stripping the Quran from its claim that its contents are useful for all times and all places. They monopolized religion and council to themselves; no one may enter their special club except those who have obtained a college degree in Sharia; a degree they had invented. And no one may obtain that diploma unless it was bestowed, after testing him and making sure that he already agrees with them. And if he disagrees with them later on they would accuse him of blasphemy and excommunicate him from Islam and in some cases even call for his murder.

It is for this very reason that these scholars of replication (those who copy-paste for us what their predecessors had interpreted, on the basis that the closer a person was to the prophet's time the more accurate his understanding was) to adopt the Sunna as it has been copied from so and so, and to adopt the sayings of the companions and their followers and the five imams (Jafar, Abu Hanifa, Malik, al-Shafei, Ibn Hanbal) and historians and imams of interpretation (al-Tabari, al-Sayouti, Ibn Kathir, etc.) and the imams of Hadeeth (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmithi, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, al-Nisaii, etc.) and the imams of past generations (al-Ghazali, al-Mutawakkil, Ibn Wahhab, etc.) and many other referees and muftis; because it is with all these volumes and books that they devour the Quran with and rip it off its original straightforward meaning.

That is how, to them, the words of God unchecked by the words of long-past imams result in an incomplete religion, as if God (all glory is to Him) had purposefully left gaps in the Quran awaiting Ibn Hanbal and Bukhari and Muslim to fill up; and that had it not been for them, the works of the Messenger of God would have been in vain.

A person might say: "What's wrong with reading these books and volumes, even if we can never fully prove their authenticity? Can't we take from them what agrees with the Quran and reason and logic, and abandon the rest?" A wonderful idea indeed, had it been possible to gain any religious benefit from anything that they had written except going back to a time that only existed in their imagination. For if it's true that the prophet had forbidden us from recording his Hadeeths (as has been reported in the Sahih), and if it's true that the righteous caliphs had also forbidden the recording of Hadeeths, it won't be difficult for the rational reader to see the wisdom in that decision after all we have gone over in this essay. Had the Quran been considered as our only source for divine law and final say on what Islam is all about, we would have had a very different Islam today: an advanced and logical Islam that is capable of adapting and coping with time and space, for the Quran is God's divine law and the words of the Absolute God that cannot be confined within space nor time.

He told the truth, he who said that we are a nation that has been glorified by Islam, and by Islam he was referring to Muhammad's message to us from God: the Holy Quran. You know he meant what he said because he was Omar bin al-Khattab, the caliph that detested the recording of Hadeeths so much that he led a campaign against it. If we were to submit to God (not to his prophet or to any other man or woman), we would have successfully grabbed the tightest of all ropes (to pull ourselves onto the path of greatness). The outcome of all matters belong to God20.

24 August 2012


1 - ^ Quoted from Ali bin abi Talib's "Najh al-Balaghah."
2 - ^ Ibn Hisham, al-Sira al-Nabawiyyah, chapter title: the great battle of Badr, al-Habbab's council to God's messenger; Asad al-Ghabah, Vol. 1, P231.
3 - ^ Check the word ajama in Lisan al-Arab dictionary.
4 - ^ There is nothing wrong about them being Persian. The point of bringing up their Persian origins is to explain the chain of events that led to the creation of Hadeethology. It was inevitable for the Persians to be leaders in it, since the language barrier was the ultimate incentive that pushed them into learning and reading from early childhood. Persians did not only excel in jurisprudence but also in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, engineering, music, and more.
5 - ^ Ibn Khalakan. Vol. 2, P231.
6 - ^ Ibn al-Arabi, al-Awasim min al-Qawasim, P75; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, (110/1); Ibn Hazm, al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam; et al...
7 - ^ "Omar ibn al-Khattab said to Abu Tharr, Abdullah, and Abu al-Dardaa: 'What is this Hadeeth you are quoting Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him?' Then he said that he imprisoned them." (Ibn Asaker, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, Vol. 47, P142)
8 - ^ From an old Palestinian folk tale: two men saw a strange black object at a distance. The first said it was a calf, the second said it was a bird. And they kept arguing about it till the object spread its wings and flew in the air. So the second man said: 'Do you see now that it's a bird?' And the first responded: 'You know what? It's a calf even if it flies!'
9 - ^ Al-Nisaii, book of cosmetics, chapter title: what is hateful for women to wear; Abu Dawud, chapter title: about women using scent before going out; al-Hakim (2/396); Ahmad bin Hanbal (4/400).
10 - ^ Al-Bukhari (3237); Muslim (1436).
11 - ^ al-Qamus al-Muhit; al-Ibab al-Zakhir; al-Sihah fil-Lughah; Lisan al-Arab; Maqayis al-Lughah; al-Mujam al-Wasit, all of these contain interpretations of all Quranic verses.
12 - ^ Maqayis al-Lughah; Lisan al-Arab.
13 - ^ Quran: al-Nisaa (chapter 4), verse 24.
14 - ^ Sahih Muslim, Book of Marital Relations, Hadeeth no. 2511.
15 - ^ Sahih Bukhari, Vol 6. P2498-2502.
16 - ^ Al-Nisaa (chapter 4), verse 43; al-Maidah (chapter 5), verse 6.
17 - ^ Narrated by Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in Musnad al-Ansar, Hadeeth no. 20414; in Sahih Muslim (Prayer), Hadeeth no. 789; in al-Tirmithi (Prayer) Hadeeth no. 310; Nisaii (Qiblah) Hadeeth no. 742. Abu Dawud (Prayer) Hadeeth no. 602; Ibn Majah (Upholding Prayer and the Sunna in it) Hadeeth no. 942.
18 - ^ Sunan Abi Dawud: book of Dress Code: chapter of what a woman is allowed to show of her beauty.
19 - ^ Sunan Abi Dawud: Hadeeth no. 495.
20 - ^ Check Quran: Luqman (chapter 31), verse 22.